# 10. Results Summary/descriptive statistics for each experimental group, with a measure of variability where applicable (e.g. mean and SD, or median and range). explanation

For each experiment conducted, including independent replications, report:

Summary/descriptive statistics provide a quick and simple description of the data, they communicate quantitative results easily and facilitate visual presentation. For continuous data, these descriptors include a measure of central tendency (e.g. mean, median) and a measure of variability (e.g. quartiles, range, standard deviation) to help readers assess the precision of the data collected. Categorical data can be expressed as counts, frequencies, or proportions.

Report data for all experiments conducted. If a complete experiment is repeated on a different day, or under different conditions, report the results of all repeats, rather than selecting data from representative experiments. Report the exact number of experimental units per group so readers can gauge the reliability of the results (see **item 2 – Sample size**, and **item 3 – Inclusion and exclusion criteria**). Present data clearly as text, in tables, or in graphs, to enable information to be evaluated, or extracted for future meta-analyses [1]. Report descriptive statistics with a clearly identified measure of variability for each group. Example 1 shows data summarised as means and standard deviations and, in brackets, ranges. Boxplots are a convenient way to summarise continuous data, plotted as median and interquartile range, as shown in Example 2.

## References

- Michel MC, Murphy TJ and Motulsky HJ (2020). New author guidelines for displaying data and reporting data analysis and statistical methods in experimental biology.
*Mol. Pharmacol.*__doi: 10.1124/mol.119.118927__